Мифы о биткойне

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Версия от 19:40, 6 декабря 2014; Earlfox (обсуждение | вклад) (Идея биткоинов не может работать, потому что нет способа контролировать инфляцию)
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Данная страница поможет Вам развенчать некоторые мифы связанные с биткойном.

Давайте разберёмся с самыми основными заблуждениями о Биткоинах.


Биткойн такая же электронная валюта как и другие - ничего нового

Другие традиционные виртуальные валюты контролируются определенным регулирующим центром. Это означает, что:

  • они могут быть напечатаны по субъективным прихотям регулятора валюты;
  • они могут быть уничтожены атакой на этот некий регулирующий центр;
  • могут быть наложены произвольные правила регулятором валюты.

Биткойны, являясь изначально децентрализованной валютой, решает все эти проблемы.

Биткойны не решают какие-либо проблемы, которые не способны решить золото и/или фиатные деньги

В отличие от золота биткойны:

  • легко переносить и хранить;
  • легко проверить на подлинность.
  • могут дробиться на очень малые части
  • могут быстро пересылаться

В отличие от фиатных денег биткойны:

  • имеют предсказуемую и уменьшающуюся эмиссию;
  • не контролируются каким-либо регулирующим центром.

В отличие от фиатных электронных денег биткойны:

  • могут быть анонимными (как наличность);
  • счета никак не могут быть заморожены.
  • переводы в биткоинах как правило быстрее
  • переводы в биткоинах как правило дешевле

Биткоины обеспечены процессорным временем

Некорректно говорить, что биткоины обеспечены процессорным временем. Когда говорят, что валюта чем-то "обеспечена", то подразумевается, что она к чему-то централизованно привязана по обменному курсу. вы не можете обменять биткоины на затраченную на их генерацию вычислительную мощность (она слишком высока). В этом смысле биткоины ничем не обеспечены. Это самоценный продукт. Подумайте, разве золото чем-то обеспечено? Нет, это просто золото. То же самое и с биткоинами.

Биткоин валюта создана с применением вычислительной мощности: целостность цепочки блоков защищена от разного рода атак существованием большой компьютерной сети. И это все.

Биткоины ничего не стоят, потому что они ничем не обеспечены

One could argue that gold isn't backed by anything either. Bitcoins have properties resulting from the system's design that allows them to be subjectively valued by individuals. This valuation is demonstrated when individuals freely exchange for or with bitcoins. Please refer to the Subjective Theory of Value.

See also: the "Bitcoin is backed by processing power" myth.

Ценность биткоинов основана на том, сколько электричества и вычислительной мощности требуется для их генерации

This statement is an attempt to apply to Bitcoin the labor theory of value, which is generally accepted as false. Just because something takes X resources to create does not mean that the resulting product will be worth X. It can be worth more, or less, depending on the utility thereof to its users.

In fact the causality is the reverse of that (this applies to the labor theory of value in general). The cost to mine bitcoins is based on how much they are worth. If bitcoins go up in value, more people will mine (because mining is profitable), thus difficulty will go up, thus the cost of mining will go up. The inverse happens if bitcoins go down in value. These effects balance out to cause mining to always cost an amount proportional to the value of bitcoins it produces.

Биткоины не имеют собственной ценности (в отличие от некоторых других вещей)

This is simply not true. Each bitcoin gives the holder the ability to embed a large number of short in-transaction messages in a globally distributed and timestamped permanent data store, namely the bitcoin blockchain. There is no other similar datastore which is so widely distributed. There is a tradeoff between the exact number of messages and how quickly they can be embedded. But as of December 2013, it's fair to say that one bitcoin allows around 1000 such messages to be embedded, each within about 10 minutes of being sent, since a fee of 0.001 BTC is enough to get transactions confirmed quickly. This message embedding certainly has intrinsic value since it can be used to prove ownership of a document at a certain time, by including a one-way hash of that document in a transaction. Considering that electronic notarization services charge something like $10/document, this would give an intrinsic value of around $10,000 per bitcoin.

While some other tangible commodities do have intrinsic value, that value is generally much less than its trading price. Consider for example that gold, if it were not used as an inflation-proof store of value, but rather only for its industrial uses, would certainly not be worth what it is today, since the industrial requirements for gold are far smaller than the available supply thereof.

In any event, while historically intrinsic value, as well as other attributes like divisibility, fungibility, scarcity, durability, helped establish certain commodities as mediums of exchange, it is certainly not a prerequisite. While bitcoins are accused of lacking 'intrinsic value' in this sense, they make up for it in spades by possessing the other qualities necessary to make it a good medium of exchange, equal to or better than commodity money.

Another way to think about this is to consider the value of bitcoin the global network, rather than each bitcoin in isolation. The value of an individual telephone is derived from the network it is connected to. If there was no phone network, a telephone would be useless. Similarly the value of an individual bitcoin derives from the global network of bitcoin-enabled merchants, exchanges, wallets, etc... Just like a phone is necessary to transmit vocal information through the network, a bitcoin is necessary to transmit economic information through the network.

Value is ultimately determined by what people are willing to trade for - by supply and demand.

Биткоины являются незаконными, потому что они не являются законным платежным средством

In March 2013, the U.S. Financial Crimes Enforcement Network issues a new set of guidelines on "de-centralized virtual currency", clearly targeting Bitcoin. Under the new guidelines, "a user of virtual currency is not a Money Services Businesses (MSB) under FinCEN's regulations and therefore is not subject to MSB registration, reporting, and record keeping regulations." [1] Miners, when mining bitcoins for their own personal use, aren't required to register as a MSB or Money Transmitter. [2]

In general, there are a number of currencies in existence that are not official government-backed currencies. A currency is, after all, nothing more than a convenient unit of account. While national laws may vary from country to country, and you should certainly check the laws of your jurisdiction, in general trading in any commodity, including digital currency like Bitcoin, BerkShares, game currencies like WoW gold, or Linden dollars, is not illegal.

Биткоины это форма внутреннего терроризма, потому что они только вредят экономической стабильности государства и государственной валюте

According to the definition of terrorism in the United States, you need to do violent activities to be considered a terrorist for legal purposes. Recent off-the-cuff remarks by politicians have no basis in law or fact.

Also, Bitcoin isn't domestic to the US or any other country. It's a worldwide community, as can be seen in this map of Bitcoin nodes.

Биткоины только облегчат уклонения от налогов, что приведет к возможному падению цивилизации

Cash transactions hold the same level of anonymity but are still taxed successfully. It is up to you to follow the applicable state laws in your home country, or face the consequences.

While it may be easy to transfer bitcoins anonymously, spending them anonymously on tangibles is just as hard as spending any other kind of money anonymously. Tax evaders are often caught because their lifestyle and assets are inconsistent with their reported income, and not necessarily because government is able to follow their money.

Биткоины может печатать/чеканить каждый, следовательно - они бесполезны

Bitcoins are not printed/minted. Instead, Blocks are computed by miners and for their efforts they are awarded a specific amount of bitcoins and transaction fees paid by others. See Mining for more information on how this process works.

Биткоины бесполезны, потому что они основаны на непроверенной/недоказанной криптографии

Алгоритмы SHA-256 (FIPS180-3 Secure Hash Standard) и ECDSA, которые применяются в программе Bitcoin, являются хорошо известными промышленными стандартами шифрования. Если вы считаете что эти алгоритмы недостаточно проверены/доказаны, тогда вам нужно перестать доверять не только Биткоину а ещё и кредитным картам, и вообще любым электронным кошелькам. Стандарты криптографии используемые в Биткоин широко известны как одни из самых надёжных в мире.

Первые пользователи биткоинами несправедливо вознаграждены

Первые пользователи были награждены за взятие на себя более высокого риска потери своего времени и средств. The capital invested in bitcoin at each stage of its life invigorated the community and helped the currency to reach subsequent milestones. Arguing that early adopters do not deserve to profit from this is akin to saying that early investors in a company, or people who buy stock at a company IPO (Initial Public Offering), are unfairly rewarded.

This argument also depends on bitcoin early adopters using bitcoins to store rather than transfer value. The daily trade on the exchanges (as of Jan 2012) indicates that smaller transactions are becoming the norm, indicating trade rather than investment. С более прагматической точки зрения термин "справедливость" является условной концепцией, что делает маловероятным его согласование большим количеством людей. Установление "справедливости" не является целью проекта Bitcoin, так как это было бы просто невозможно.

Подавляющее большинство от 21 миллиона биткоинов все еще не было распространено среди людей.

Если вы начнете приобретать биткоины сегодня, вы сами можете стать одним из "первых пользователей".

21 миллиона монет недостаточно, это несоизмеримо с потребностями человечества

В действительности по проекту Bitcoin будет существовать 2099999997690000 (чуть более двух квадриллионов) максимально возможных неделимых единиц.

Один биткоин представляет собой 100000000 (сто миллионов) из них. Другими словами, каждый биткоин может быть поделен на 108 частей.

Если стоимость биткоинов вырастет слишком сильно, то люди для удобства могут начать работать с меньшими частями, такими как миллибиткоины (mBTC) и микробиткоины (µBTC). Впрочем, возможна и деноминация с коэффициентами 1:10, 1:100 и так далее.

Биткоины хранятся в файлах кошелька, просто скопируйте кошелек и получите больше монет!

Нет, ваш файл кошелька содержит секретные приватные ключи, дающие Вам право распоряжаться своими биткоинами. Представьте, что у вас есть ключ, выданный Вашим банком для управления вашим счетом. Если вы передадите его кому-либо еще, это не увеличит средств на вашем счету в банке. Средства будут потрачены либо вами, либо этим третьим лицом.

Утерянные монеты не могут быть заменены, и это не есть хорошо

Минимальной биткоин единицей является 0.00000001, так что это не проблема. Если вы теряете монеты, все остальные монеты немного поднимутся в цене. Считайте это пожертвованием всем остальным пользователям биткоинов.

Есть связанный с этим вопрос: Почему нет механизма замены утерянных монет? Невозможно различить утерянную монету и ту, которая просто 'утеряна' в данный момент и ту которая ждет в чьем-то кошельке своего времени, чтобы оказаться полезной.

Это гигантская финансовая пирамида

В финансовых пирамидах (смотрите схему Понци и МММ) основатели убеждают инвесторов, что они будут в прибыли. Биткоины не дают таких гарантий. Тут нет регулирующего центра, есть просто группа людей, которые строят новую экономику.

Однако, так же не следует путать биткоины сами по себе с различными проектами в сети Интернет, которые могут принимать биткоины в качестве вклада и являться финансовыми пирамидами.

Также важно понять, что Сатоши Накамото, создатель Биткоина, ещё никогда не тратил ни одного Биткоина (не считая тех, которые он раздавал в самом начале когда они ничего не стоили) и этот факт легко доказать математически путём анализа блокчейна.

Ограниченная эмиссия и утерянные монеты порождают дефляционную спираль

Как дефляционные силы могут проявлять себя, так и экономические факторы вроде накопительства противодействуют человеческому фактору, что может уменьшить шансы проявления дефляционной спирали.

Идея биткоинов не может работать, потому что нет способа контролировать инфляцию

Инфляция это просто рост цен в течение времени, который, как правило, является следствием обесценивания валюты. Это функция спроса и предложения. Учитывая тот факт, что предложение биткоинов фиксировано (в связи с особенностями их эмиссии), в отличие от фиатных денег, единственным путем выхода из под контроля инфляции является исчезновение спроса на биткоины.

Следует так же учитывать, что биткоины являются валютой с предсказуемой децентрализованной эмиссией. Если спрос снизится почти до нуля, то биткоины будут обречены в любом случае. Однако, маловероятно, что это может произойти в действительности.

Ключевым моментом здесь является то, что биткоины не могут быть обесценены резким повышением инфляции каким-либо лицом, организацией или правительством, так как нет возможности слишком сильно увеличить предложение из-за особенностей эмиссии.

В действительности более вероятен сценарий увеличения спроса на биткоины из-за нарастающей популярности, что должно приводить к постоянному росту обменного курса идефляции.

Биткоин сообщество это анархисты, теоретики заговоров, сторонники золотого стандарта и 'гики'

The members of the community vary in their ideological stances. While it may have been started by ideological enthusiasts, Bitcoin now speaks to a large number of regular pragmatic folk, who simply see its potential for reducing the costs and friction of global e-commerce.

Любой человек с достаточной вычислительной мощностью может перехватить управление сетью

CONFIRMED, see Weaknesses.

That said, as the network grows, it becomes harder and harder for a single entity to do so. Already the Bitcoin network's computing power is quite ahead of the world's fastest supercomputers, together.

What an attacker can do once the network is taken over is quite limited. Under no circumstances could an attacker create counterfeit coins, fake transactions, or take anybody else's money. An attacker's capabilities are limited to taking back their own money that they very recently spent, and preventing other people's transactions from receiving confirmations. Such an attack would be very costly in resources, and for such meager benefits there is little rational economic incentive to do such a thing.

Furthermore, this attack scenario would only be feasible for as long as it was actively underway. As soon as the attack stopped, the network would resume normal operation.

Биткоины нарушают какие-то постановления правительства

There is no known governmental regulation which disallows the use of Bitcoin.

See also: the "Bitcoins are illegal because they're not legal tender" myth.

Частичное банковское резервирование невозможно

It is possible. See the main article, Fractional Reserve Banking and Bitcoin

После добычи 21 миллиона монет никто не будет генерировать блоки, подтверждающие переводы

When operating costs can't be covered by the block creation bounty, which will happen some time before the total amount of BTC is reached, miners will earn some profit from transaction fees. However unlike the block reward, there is no coupling between transaction fees and the need for security, so there is less of a guarantee that the amount of mining being performed will be sufficient to maintain the network's security.

Нет встроенного механизма отмены платежа, и это не есть хорошо

Why some people think this is bad: Chargebacks are useful for limiting fraud. The person handling your money has a responsibility to prevent fraud. If you buy something on eBay and the seller never ships it, PayPal takes funds from the seller's account and gives you back the money. This strengthens the eBay economy, because people recognize that their risk is limited and are more willing to purchase items from risky sellers.

Why it's actually a good thing: Bitcoin is designed such that your money is yours and yours alone. Allowing chargebacks implies that it is possible for another entity to take your money from you. You can have either total ownership rights of your money, or fraud protection, but not both. That said, nothing inherent in the dollar or euro or any other currency is necessary for chargebacks to be possible, and likewise, nothing prevents the creation of PayPal-like services denominated in Bitcoin that provide chargebacks or fraud protection.

The statement "The person handling your money has a responsibility to prevent fraud" is still true; the power has been shifted into your own hands. Fraud will always exist. It's up to you to only send bitcoins to trusted entities. It is possible to trust an online identity without ever knowing their physical identity; see the OTC Web of Trust.

Квантовые компьютеры нарушат безопасность биткоинов

While ECDSA is indeed not secure under quantum computing, quantum computers don't yet exist and probably won't for a while. The DWAVE system often written about in the press is, even if all their claims are true, not a quantum computer of a kind that could be used for cryptography. Bitcoin's security, when used properly with a new address on each transaction, depends on more than just ECDSA: Cryptographic hashes are much stronger than ECDSA under QC. Bitcoin's security was designed to be upgraded in a forward compatible way and could be upgraded if this were considered an imminent threat.

See the implications of quantum computers on public key cryptography here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_computer#Potential

The risk of quantum computers is also there for financial institutions, like banks, because they heavily rely on cryptography when doing transactions.

Bitcoin makes self-sufficient artificial intelligence possible

StorJ[3], a theorized autonomous agent which utilizes humans to build itself and issues autonomous payments for improvement work done, is not a conscious entity. Whatever AI is possible, is not going to be magically more possible simply because it could incentivize human behaviour with pseudonymous Bitcoin payments.

Генерация биткоинов энергетически затратна и вредна для экологии

No more so than the wastefulness of mining gold out of the ground, melting it down and shaping it into bars, and then putting it back underground again. Not to mention the building of big fancy buildings, the waste of energy printing and minting all the various fiat currencies, the transportation thereof in armored cars by no less than two security guards for each who could probably be doing something more productive, etc.

As far as mediums of exchange go, Bitcoin is actually quite economical of resources, compared to others.

Economic Argument 1

Bitcoin mining is a highly competitive, dynamic, almost perfect, market. Mining rigs can be set up and dismantled almost anywhere in the world with relative ease. Thus, market forces are constantly pushing mining activity to places and times where the marginal price of electricity is low or zero. These electricity products are cheap for a reason. Often it’s because the electricity is difficult (and wasteful) to transport, difficult to store, or because there is low demand and high supply. Using electricity in this way is a lot less wasteful than simply plugging a mining rig into the mains indiscriminately.

For example, Iceland produces an excess of cheap electricity from renewable sources, but it has no way of exporting electricity because of its remote location. It is conceivable that at some point in future Bitcoin mining will only be profitable in places like Iceland, and unprofitable in places like central Europe, where electricity comes mostly from nuclear and fossil sources.

Market forces could even push mining into innovative solutions that have an effective electricity consumption of zero. Mining always produces heat equivalent to the energy consumed - for example, 1000 watts of mining equipment produces the same amount of heat as a 1000 watt heating element used in an electric space heater, hot tub, water heater, or similar appliance. Someone already in a willing position to incur the cost of electricity for its heat value alone could run mining equipment specially designed to mine bitcoins while capturing and utilizing the heat produced, without incurring any energy costs beyond what they already intended to spend on heating.

(Note that this is just an example; mining will not always produce heat equivalent to the energy consumed because some energy is inevitably released as electromagnetic radiation, among others.)

Economic Argument 2

When the environmental costs of mining are considered, they need to be weighed up against the benefits. If you question Bitcoin on the grounds that it consumes electricity, then you should also ask questions like this: Will Bitcoin promote economic growth by freeing up trade? Will this speed up the rate of technological innovation? Will this lead to faster development of green technologies? Will Bitcoin enable new, border crossing smart grid technologies? …

Dismissal of Bitcoin because of its costs, while ignoring its benefits, is a dishonest argument. In fact, any environmental argument of this type is dishonest, not just pertaining to Bitcoin. Along similar lines, it could be argued that wind turbines are bad for the environment because making the steel structure consumes energy.

Ratio of Capital Costs versus Electrical Costs

The BFL Jalapeno hashes at 5.5 Gh/s using 30W. That device consumes about $40 per year in electricity (using U.S. residential average of about $0.15 per kWh.) But the device costs over $300 including shipping. Thus just about a quarter of all costs over a two-year useful life goes to electricity. This compares to GPUs where more than 90% of costs over a two-year life went to electricity. Even more efficient designs can be expected in the future.

Владельцы магазинов не могут серьезно устанавливать цены на продукты в биткоинах из-за нестабильного обменного курса

The assumption is that bitcoins must be sold immediately to cover operating expenses. If the shopkeeper's back-end expenses were transacted in bitcoins as well, then the exchange rate would be irrelevant. Larger adoption of Bitcoin would make prices sticky. Future volatility is expected to decrease, as the size and depth of the market grows.

In the meantime, many merchants simply regularly pull the latest market rates from the exchanges and automatically update the prices on their websites. Also you might be able to buy a put option in order to sell at a fixed rate for a given amount of time. This would protect you from drops in price and simplify your operations for that time period.

Подобно Flooz и E-gold, биткоины прекрасно подходят преступникам, поэтому будут ликвидированы

  • Visa, MasterCard, PayPal, and cash all serve as opportunities for criminals as well, but society keeps them around due to their recognized net benefit.
  • Hopefully Bitcoin will grow to the point where no single organization can disrupt the network, or would be better served by helping it.
  • Terrorists fly aircraft into buildings, but the governments have not yet abolished consumer air travel. Obviously the public good outweighs the possible bad in their opinion.
  • Criminal law differs between jurisdictions.

Биткоины будут ликвидированы правительством, как это произошло с Liberty Dollar (не путать с Liberty Reserve)

Liberty Dollars started as a commercial venture to establish an alternative US currency, including physical banknotes and coins, backed by precious metals. This, in and of itself, is not illegal. They were prosecuted under counterfeiting laws because the silver coins allegedly resembled US currency.

Bitcoins do not resemble the currency of the US or of any other nation in any way, shape, or form. The word "dollar" is not attached to them in any way. The "$" symbol is not used in any way.

Bitcoins have no representational similarity whatsoever to US dollars.

Of course, actually 'shutting down' Liberty Dollars was as easy as arresting the head of the company and seizing the offices and the precious metals used as backing. The decentralized Bitcoin, with no leader, no servers, no office, and no tangible asset backing, does not have the same vulnerability.

Bitcoin is not decentralized because the developers can dictate the software's behavior

The Bitcoin protocol was originally defined by Bitcoin's inventor, Satoshi Nakamoto, and this protocol has now been widely accepted as the standard by the community of miners and users.

Though the developers of the original Bitcoin client still exert influence over the Bitcoin community, their power to arbitrarily modify the protocol is very limited. Since the release of Bitcoin v0.3, changes to the protocol have been minor and always in agreement with community consensus.

Protocol modifications, such as increasing the block award from 25 to 50 BTC, are not compatible with clients already running in the network. If the developers were to release a new client that the majority of miners perceives as corrupt, or in violation of the project’s aims, that client would simply not catch on, and the few users who do try to use it would find that their transactions get rejected by the network.

There are also other Bitcoin clients made by other developers that adhere to the Bitcoin protocol. As more developers create alternative clients, less power will lie with the developers of the original Bitcoin client.

Bitcoin является мошенничеством или схемой для быстрого обогащения

Bitcoin is nearly opposite of a pyramid scheme in a mathematical sense. Because Bitcoins are algorithmically made scarce, no exponential benefit is derived from introducing new users to use of it. There is a quantitative benefit in having additional interest or demand, but this is in no way exponential.

Bitcoin was hacked

In the history of Bitcoin, there has never been an attack on the block chain that resulted in stolen money from a confirmed output. Neither has there ever been a reported theft resulting directly from a vulnerability in the original Bitcoin client, or a vulnerability in the protocol. Bitcoin is secured by standard cryptographic functions. These functions have been peer reviewed by cryptography experts and are considered unlikely to be breakable in the foreseeable future.

It is safe to say that the currency itself has never been 'hacked'. However, several major websites using the currency have been hacked, often resulting in high profile Bitcoin heists. These heists are misreported in some media as hacks on Bitcoin itself. An analogy: Just because someone stole US dollars from a supermarket till, doesn’t mean that the US dollar as a currency has been 'hacked'.

Most bitcoin thefts are the result of inadequate wallet security. In response to the wave of thefts in 2011 and 2012, the community has developed risk-mitigating measures such as wallet encryption, support for multiple signatures, offline wallets, paper wallets, and hardware wallets. As these measures gain adoption by merchants and users, the number of thefts drop.